The Metadata in TIFF files

Version 20 (Robin Mills, 13 Nov 2016 11:14)

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h2{color:#628DB6}. The Metadata in TIFF files
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p{margin-left:60px;}. The Tagged Image File Format is a container.  It's very flexible and can deal with multiple pages, different colour spaces and frame configurations, as well as metadata.  The specification is available from:  https://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/tiff/TIFF6.pdf
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p{margin-left:60px;}. The TIFF container is so flexible it is used as the structure for most RAW formats including Adobe's DNG.  Additionally the TIFF container is used to store the metadata that lies inside the Exif blocks embedded in JPEG and PNG files.
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p{margin-left:60px;}. There is a 64bit version of Tiff called _*BigTiff*_. This is currently not supported by exiv2.
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p{margin-left:60px;}. !Tiff.png!
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p{margin-left:60px;}. The format consists of an 8 byte header which provides a 2 byte endian flag (II or MM), a 2 byte type "magic number" (42) and a 4 byte offset to an _*Image File Directory*_.
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p{margin-left:60px;}. The _*IFD*_ _(Image File Directory)_  has a two byte header which contains the length of the directory followed by 12 byte "fields" or "tags".  The trailing 4 bytes of the directory is the offset to the next directory _*or*_ zero to terminate the directory chain.
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p{margin-left:60px;}. A tag consists of a 12 byte record: TagID, TagType, Count and Offset which are 2,2,4 and 4 bytes respectively.  The TagID defines the purpose of the record (Width, Height, ColorSpace etc) and the TagType defines the data format.  Count and Offset are used to contain the raw data _*or*_ provide an offset in the file at which to read the raw data for this tag.
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h2{color:#628DB6}. Example:
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The version of exiv2(.exe) which ships with v0.25 provides options _*<code>-pS</code>*_ to reveals the structure of the TIFF and option _*<code>-pX</code>*_ is used to extract the raw XMP/xml data.
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The option _*<code>-pv</code>*_ is used to print the metadata values.<pre>$ exiv2 -pv test/data/test.tiff 
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0x00fe Image        NewSubfileType              Long        1  0
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0x0100 Image        ImageWidth                  Short       1  282
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0x0101 Image        ImageLength                 Short       1  212
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0x0102 Image        BitsPerSample               Short       3  8 8 8
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0x0103 Image        Compression                 Short       1  5
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0x0106 Image        PhotometricInterpretation   Short       1  2
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0x010e Image        ImageDescription            Ascii      32                                 
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0x010f Image        Make                        Ascii       5  SONY
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0x0110 Image        Model                       Ascii       9  DSC-S600
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0x0111 Image        StripOffsets                Long       16  4372 14864 ...
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0x0112 Image        Orientation                 Short       1  1
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0x0115 Image        SamplesPerPixel             Short       1  3
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0x0116 Image        RowsPerStrip                Long        1  14
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0x0117 Image        StripByteCounts             Long       16  10492 ...
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0x011a Image        XResolution                 Rational    1  96/1
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0x011b Image        YResolution                 Rational    1  96/1
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0x011c Image        PlanarConfiguration         Short       1  1
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0x0128 Image        ResolutionUnit              Short       1  2
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0x0132 Image        DateTime                    Ascii      20  2009:04:26 12:38:18
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0x013d Image        Predictor                   Short       1  1
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0x0153 Image        SampleFormat                Short       3  1 1 1
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0x02bc Image        XMLPacket                   Byte      2505  (Binary value suppressed)
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0x8773 Image        InterColorProfile           Undefined 1352  (Binary value suppressed)
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$ exiv2 -pS test/data/test.tiff
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STRUCTURE OF TIFF FILE (II): test/data/test.tiff
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 address |    tag                           |      type |    count |    offset | value
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      10 | 0x00fe NewSubfileType            |      LONG |        1 |         0 | 0
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      22 | 0x0100 ImageWidth                |     SHORT |        1 |       282 | 282
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      34 | 0x0101 ImageLength               |     SHORT |        1 |       212 | 212
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      46 | 0x0102 BitsPerSample             |     SHORT |        3 |       290 | 8 8 8
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      58 | 0x0103 Compression               |     SHORT |        1 |         5 | 5
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      70 | 0x0106 PhotometricInterpretation |     SHORT |        1 |         2 | 2
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      82 | 0x010e ImageDescription          |     ASCII |       32 |       296 |                                
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      94 | 0x010f Make                      |     ASCII |        5 |       328 | SONY
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     106 | 0x0110 Model                     |     ASCII |        9 |       334 | DSC-S600
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     118 | 0x0111 StripOffsets              |      LONG |       16 |       344 | 4372 14864 25634 37110 50496 ...
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     130 | 0x0112 Orientation               |     SHORT |        1 |         1 | 1
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     142 | 0x0115 SamplesPerPixel           |     SHORT |        1 |         3 | 3
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     154 | 0x0116 RowsPerStrip              |      LONG |        1 |        14 | 14
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     166 | 0x0117 StripByteCounts           |      LONG |       16 |       408 | 10492 10770 11476 13385 13348 ...
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     178 | 0x011a XResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       472 | 96/1
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     190 | 0x011b YResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       480 | 96/1
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     202 | 0x011c PlanarConfiguration       |     SHORT |        1 |         1 | 1
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     214 | 0x0128 ResolutionUnit            |     SHORT |        1 |         2 | 2
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     226 | 0x0132 DateTime                  |     ASCII |       20 |       488 | 2009:04:26 12:38:18
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     238 | 0x013d Predictor                 |     SHORT |        1 |         1 | 1
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     250 | 0x0153 SampleFormat              |     SHORT |        3 |       508 | 1 1 1
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     262 | 0x02bc XMLPacket                 |      BYTE |     2505 |       514 | <?xpacket begin="..." id="W5M0Mp ...
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     274 | 0x8773 InterColorProfile         | UNDEFINED |     1352 |      3020 | ...Happl. ..scnrRGB XYZ ....... ...
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END test/data/test.tiff
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$ exiv2 -pX test/data/test.tiff  | xmllint --format -
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<?xml version="1.0"?>
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<?xpacket begin="" id="W5M0MpCehiHzreSzNTczkc9d"?>
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<x:xmpmeta xmlns:x="adobe:ns:meta/" x:xmptk="XMP Core 4.4.0-Exiv2">
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  <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
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    <rdf:Description xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:about="">
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      <dc:title>
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        <rdf:Alt>
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          <rdf:li xml:lang="x-default">this is a test image</rdf:li>
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        </rdf:Alt>
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      </dc:title>
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    </rdf:Description>
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  </rdf:RDF>
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</x:xmpmeta>
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<?xpacket end="w"?>
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$ </pre>
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You can use the output from _*<code>-pS</code>*_ to determine the location of the XMLPacket:<pre>$ exiv2 -pS test/data/test.tiff | grep XMLPacket 
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     262 | 0x02bc XMLPacket                 |      BYTE |     2505 |       514 | <?xpacket begin="..." id="W5M0Mp ...
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$ </pre>You can see the XMLPacket of 2505 bytes stored at offset 514.   You can extract the XMP with the following command:<pre>$ dd bs=1 count=2505 skip=514 if=test/data/test.tiff | xmllint --format - 
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2505+0 records in
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2505+0 records out
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2505 bytes (2.5 kB) copied, 0.0064 s, 391 kB/s
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<?xml version="1.0"?>
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<?xpacket begin="" id="W5M0MpCehiHzreSzNTczkc9d"?>
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<x:xmpmeta xmlns:x="adobe:ns:meta/" x:xmptk="XMP Core 4.4.0-Exiv2">
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  <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
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    <rdf:Description xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" rdf:about="">
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      <dc:title>
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        <rdf:Alt>
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          <rdf:li xml:lang="x-default">this is a test image</rdf:li>
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        </rdf:Alt>
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      </dc:title>
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    </rdf:Description>
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  </rdf:RDF>
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</x:xmpmeta>
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<?xpacket end="w"?>
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</pre>
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The option _*<code>-pX</code>*_ doesn't use dd to achieve the same result and is much more convenient to use.
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To demonstrate that the metadata block in a JPEG is a TIFF file, extract and print the structure.<pre>$ exiv2 -pS test/data/Reagan.jpg 
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STRUCTURE OF JPEG FILE: test/data/Reagan.jpg
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 address | marker       |  length | data
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       0 | 0xffd8 SOI  
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       2 | 0xffe1 APP1  |    5718 | Exif..MM.*......................
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    5722 | 0xffed APP13 |    3038 | Photoshop 3.0.8BIM..........Z...
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    8762 | 0xffe1 APP1  |    5329 | http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/.<?x
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   14093 | 0xffe2 APP2  |     576 | ICC_PROFILE......0ADBE....mntrRG chunk 1/1
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   14671 | 0xffee APP14 |      14 | Adobe.d@......
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   14687 | 0xffdb DQT   |     132 
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   14821 | 0xffc0 SOF0  |      17 
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   14840 | 0xffdd DRI   |       4 
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   14846 | 0xffc4 DHT   |     418 
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   15266 | 0xffda SOS  
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$ </pre>We can extract the APP1/Exif data as follows:<pre>$ dd bs=1 skip=$((2+2+8)) count=$((5718-8)) if=test/data/Reagan.jpg of=ReaganExif.tiff
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5710+0 records in
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5710+0 records out
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5710 bytes (5.7 kB) copied, 0.026688 s, 214 kB/s
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$ exiv2 -pS ReaganExif.tif 
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STRUCTURE OF TIFF FILE (MM): ReaganExif.tif
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 address |    tag                           |      type |    count |    offset | value
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      10 | 0x0100 ImageWidth                |     SHORT |        1 |  13107200 | 200
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      22 | 0x0101 ImageLength               |     SHORT |        1 |   8519680 | 130
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      34 | 0x0102 BitsPerSample             |     SHORT |        4 |       242 | 8 8 8 8
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      46 | 0x0103 Compression               |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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      58 | 0x0106 PhotometricInterpretation |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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      70 | 0x010e ImageDescription          |     ASCII |      403 |       250 | 040621-N-6536T-062.USS Ronald Re ...
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      82 | 0x010f Make                      |     ASCII |       18 |       653 | NIKON CORPORATION
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      94 | 0x0110 Model                     |     ASCII |       10 |       671 | NIKON D1X
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     106 | 0x0112 Orientation               |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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     118 | 0x0115 SamplesPerPixel           |     SHORT |        1 |    262144 | 4
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     130 | 0x011a XResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       681 | 3000000/10000
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     142 | 0x011b YResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       689 | 3000000/10000
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     154 | 0x011c PlanarConfiguration       |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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     166 | 0x0128 ResolutionUnit            |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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     178 | 0x0131 Software                  |     ASCII |       40 |       697 | Adobe Photoshop Elements 12.0 Ma ...
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     190 | 0x0132 DateTime                  |     ASCII |       20 |       737 | 2016:09:13 11:58:16
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     202 | 0x013b Artist                    |     ASCII |       34 |       757 | Photographer..s Mate 3rd Class ( ...
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     214 | 0x8769 ExifTag                   |      LONG |        1 |       792 | 792
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     226 | 0x8825 GPSTag                    |      LONG |        1 |      1400 | 1400
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    1422 | 0x0103 Compression               |     SHORT |        1 |    393216 | 6
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    1434 | 0x011a XResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1498 | 72/1
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    1446 | 0x011b YResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1506 | 72/1
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    1458 | 0x0128 ResolutionUnit            |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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    1470 | 0x0201 JPEGInterchangeFormat     |      LONG |        1 |      1514 | 1514
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    1482 | 0x0202 JPEGInterchangeFormatLeng |      LONG |        1 |      4196 | 4196
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END ReaganExif.tif
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$ </pre>The version of the exiv2 utility that ships with v0.26 later has an option _*<code>-pR</code>*_ which _Recursively_ prints the structure of an image file.  *_Recursively*_ means  the utility prints structures embedded within other structures.  For example, the Exif metadata in a JPEG is encoded as a TIFF embedded in the APP1/Exif segment of the JPEG.<pre>$ exiv2 -pR test/data/Reagan.jpg 
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STRUCTURE OF JPEG FILE: test/data/Reagan.jpg
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 address | marker       |  length | data
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       0 | 0xffd8 SOI  
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       2 | 0xffe1 APP1  |    5718 | Exif..MM.*......................
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  STRUCTURE OF TIFF FILE (MM): MemIo
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   address |    tag                           |      type |    count |    offset | value
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        10 | 0x0100 ImageWidth                |     SHORT |        1 |  13107200 | 200
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        22 | 0x0101 ImageLength               |     SHORT |        1 |   8519680 | 130
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        34 | 0x0102 BitsPerSample             |     SHORT |        4 |       242 | 8 8 8 8
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        46 | 0x0103 Compression               |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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        58 | 0x0106 PhotometricInterpretation |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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        70 | 0x010e ImageDescription          |     ASCII |      403 |       250 | 040621-N-6536T-062.USS Ronald Re ...
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        82 | 0x010f Make                      |     ASCII |       18 |       653 | NIKON CORPORATION
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        94 | 0x0110 Model                     |     ASCII |       10 |       671 | NIKON D1X
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       106 | 0x0112 Orientation               |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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       118 | 0x0115 SamplesPerPixel           |     SHORT |        1 |    262144 | 4
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       130 | 0x011a XResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       681 | 681/0
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       142 | 0x011b YResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |       689 | 689/0
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       154 | 0x011c PlanarConfiguration       |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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       166 | 0x0128 ResolutionUnit            |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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       178 | 0x0131 Software                  |     ASCII |       40 |       697 | Adobe Photoshop Elements 12.0 Ma ...
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       190 | 0x0132 DateTime                  |     ASCII |       20 |       737 | 2016:09:13 11:58:16
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       202 | 0x013b Artist                    |     ASCII |       34 |       757 | Photographer..s Mate 3rd Class ( ...
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       214 | 0x8769 ExifTag                   |      LONG |        1 |       792 | 792
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    STRUCTURE OF TIFF FILE (MM): MemIo
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     address |    tag                           |      type |    count |    offset | value
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         794 | 0x829a ExposureTime              |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1254 | 1254/0
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         806 | 0x829d FNumber                   |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1262 | 1262/0
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         818 | 0x8822 ExposureProgram           |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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         830 | 0x9000 ExifVersion               | UNDEFINED |        4 | 808596016 | 0220
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         842 | 0x9003 DateTimeOriginal          |     ASCII |       20 |      1270 | 2004:06:21 23:37:53
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         854 | 0x9004 DateTimeDigitized         |     ASCII |       20 |      1290 | 2004:06:21 23:37:53
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         866 | 0x9101 ComponentsConfiguration   | UNDEFINED |        4 |  16909056 | ...
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         878 | 0x9102 CompressedBitsPerPixel    |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1310 | 1310/0
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         890 | 0x9201 ShutterSpeedValue         | SRATIONAL |        1 |      1318 | 1318/0
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         902 | 0x9202 ApertureValue             |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1326 | 1326/0
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         914 | 0x9204 ExposureBiasValue         | SRATIONAL |        1 |      1334 | 1334/0
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         926 | 0x9205 MaxApertureValue          |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1342 | 1342/0
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         938 | 0x9207 MeteringMode              |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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         950 | 0x9208 LightSource               |     SHORT |        1 |    655360 | 10
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         962 | 0x9209 Flash                     |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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         974 | 0x920a FocalLength               |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1350 | 1350/0
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         986 | 0x9290 SubSecTime                |     ASCII |        3 | 808845312 | 06
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         998 | 0x9291 SubSecTimeOriginal        |     ASCII |        3 | 808845312 | 06
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        1010 | 0x9292 SubSecTimeDigitized       |     ASCII |        3 | 808845312 | 06
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        1022 | 0xa000 FlashpixVersion           | UNDEFINED |        4 | 808529968 | 0100
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        1034 | 0xa001 ColorSpace                |     SHORT |        1 |4294901760 | 65535
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        1046 | 0xa002 PixelXDimension           |      LONG |        1 |       200 | 200
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        1058 | 0xa003 PixelYDimension           |      LONG |        1 |       130 | 130
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        1070 | 0xa217 SensingMethod             |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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        1082 | 0xa300 FileSource                | UNDEFINED |        1 |  50331648 | .
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        1094 | 0xa301 SceneType                 | UNDEFINED |        1 |  16777216 | .
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        1106 | 0xa401 CustomRendered            |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1118 | 0xa402 ExposureMode              |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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        1130 | 0xa403 WhiteBalance              |     SHORT |        1 |     65536 | 1
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        1142 | 0xa404 DigitalZoomRatio          |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1358 | 1358/0
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        1154 | 0xa405 FocalLengthIn35mmFilm     |     SHORT |        1 |   4128768 | 63
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        1166 | 0xa406 SceneCaptureType          |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1178 | 0xa407 GainControl               |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1190 | 0xa408 Contrast                  |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1202 | 0xa409 Saturation                |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1214 | 0xa40a Sharpness                 |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1226 | 0xa40c SubjectDistanceRange      |     SHORT |        1 |         0 | 0
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        1238 | 0xa420 ImageUniqueID             |     ASCII |       33 |      1366 | 127c1377b054a3f65bf2754ebb24e7f2 ...
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    END MemIo
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       226 | 0x8825 GPSTag                    |      LONG |        1 |      1400 | 1400
227 4 Robin Mills
      1422 | 0x0103 Compression               |     SHORT |        1 |    393216 | 6
228 4 Robin Mills
      1434 | 0x011a XResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1498 | 1498/0
229 4 Robin Mills
      1446 | 0x011b YResolution               |  RATIONAL |        1 |      1506 | 1506/0
230 4 Robin Mills
      1458 | 0x0128 ResolutionUnit            |     SHORT |        1 |    131072 | 2
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      1470 | 0x0201 JPEGInterchangeFormat     |      LONG |        1 |      1514 | 1514
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      1482 | 0x0202 JPEGInterchangeFormatLeng |      LONG |        1 |      4196 | 4196
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  END MemIo
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    5722 | 0xffed APP13 |    3038 | Photoshop 3.0.8BIM..........Z...
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  Record | DataSet | Name                     | Length | Data
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       1 |      90 | CharacterSet             |      3 | .%G
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       1 |      90 | CharacterSet             |      3 | .%G
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       2 |       0 | RecordVersion            |      2 | ..
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       2 |     120 | Caption                  |    402 | 040621-N-6536T-062.USS Ronald Reagan (CV...
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       2 |     122 | Writer                   |      9 | Dir. NVNS
241 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      40 | SpecialInstructions      |     49 | Credit as U.S. Navy photo by Elizabeth T...
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       2 |      80 | Byline                   |     32 | Photographer..s Mate 3rd Class (
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       2 |      85 | BylineTitle              |     21 | U.S Navy Photographer
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       2 |     110 | Credit                   |      8 | U.S Navy
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       2 |     115 | Source                   |     24 | Navy Visual News Service
246 4 Robin Mills
       2 |       5 | ObjectName               |     18 | 040621-N-6536T-062
247 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      55 | DateCreated              |      8 | 20040621
248 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      60 | TimeCreated              |     11 | 000000+0000
249 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      62 | DigitizationDate         |      8 | 20040621
250 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      63 | DigitizationTime         |     11 | 233753-0400
251 4 Robin Mills
       2 |      90 | City                     |     19 | Straits of Magellan
252 4 Robin Mills
       2 |     101 | CountryName              |     13 | South America
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       2 |      15 | Category                 |      1 | N
254 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      20 | SuppCategory             |     12 | 703-614-9154
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       2 |      20 | SuppCategory             |     23 | navyvisualnews@navy.mil
256 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      20 | SuppCategory             |     11 | UNCLASSFIED
257 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      10 | Urgency                  |      1 | 5
258 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |     13 | ronald reagan
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       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      6 | reagan
260 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      6 | cvn 76
261 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      6 | cvn-76
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       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |     18 | straights magellan
263 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      8 | magellan
264 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      7 | carrier
265 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |     12 | nimitz-class
266 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      4 | ship
267 1 Robin Mills
       2 |      25 | Keywords                 |      8 | underway
268 1 Robin Mills
    8762 | 0xffe1 APP1  |    5329 | http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/.<?x
269 1 Robin Mills
   14093 | 0xffe2 APP2  |     576 | ICC_PROFILE......0ADBE....mntrRG chunk 1/1
270 1 Robin Mills
   14671 | 0xffee APP14 |      14 | Adobe.d@......
271 1 Robin Mills
   14687 | 0xffdb DQT   |     132 
272 1 Robin Mills
   14821 | 0xffc0 SOF0  |      17 
273 1 Robin Mills
   14840 | 0xffdd DRI   |       4 
274 1 Robin Mills
   14846 | 0xffc4 DHT   |     418 
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   15266 | 0xffda SOS  
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$ </pre>
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